ScommaMaruj

2022-07-08

I am from a non-mathematics background but the course that I am taking in probability class is built on measure theory. I found many theorems stated in the book hard to comprehend and I think that's partly due to my insufficient maths background. I am self-learning real analysis currently and think it may be equally important to systematically learn abstract algebra if I really want to know the logic behind the probability class I am currently taking.

I find myself completely lost proceeding to the following section of the text.

"Let $R$ be a relation, $A$ a mathematical object, and $x$ a letter (i.e., a "totally indeterminate" mathematical object). In the assembly of letters and fundamental signs which constitutes the relation $R$, replace the letter $x$ wherever it occurs by the assembly $A$. One of the criteria for forming relations is that the assembly so obtained is again a relation, which is denoted $(\ast )$ by the notation

$(\mathrm{A}\mid x)\mathrm{R}$

and is called the relation obtained by substituting $A$ for $x$ in $R$, or by giving $x$ the value $A$ in $R$. The mathematical object A is said to satisfy the relation $R$ if the relation $(\mathrm{A}\mid x)\mathrm{R}$ is true. It goes without saying that if the letter $x$ does not appear at all in the assembly $R$, then the relation $(\mathrm{A}\mid x)\mathrm{R}$ is just $R$, and in this case to say that $A$ satisfies $R$ means that $R$ is true."

However, I do appreciate the textbook that is self-contained and appreciate the author devoted to mathematical reasoning so rigorously at the beginning of the chapter. I tried to find some textbook about mathematical logic but they are either too abstract or not thorough enough that seems to start from the most fundamental (i.e. from axiom and the most basic rule).

I have read relevant posts on the subject I am asking but can't decide the material right for me. I am wondering if there are any materials or textbooks that introduce mathematical logic rigorously and serve as a supplementary text for me to understand the first chapter of the book? If there really isn't any textbook that is not too abstract but rigorous enough, I am wondering if there are any other textbooks on abstract algebra that start from mathematical logic and build the whole system from the scratch?

I find myself completely lost proceeding to the following section of the text.

"Let $R$ be a relation, $A$ a mathematical object, and $x$ a letter (i.e., a "totally indeterminate" mathematical object). In the assembly of letters and fundamental signs which constitutes the relation $R$, replace the letter $x$ wherever it occurs by the assembly $A$. One of the criteria for forming relations is that the assembly so obtained is again a relation, which is denoted $(\ast )$ by the notation

$(\mathrm{A}\mid x)\mathrm{R}$

and is called the relation obtained by substituting $A$ for $x$ in $R$, or by giving $x$ the value $A$ in $R$. The mathematical object A is said to satisfy the relation $R$ if the relation $(\mathrm{A}\mid x)\mathrm{R}$ is true. It goes without saying that if the letter $x$ does not appear at all in the assembly $R$, then the relation $(\mathrm{A}\mid x)\mathrm{R}$ is just $R$, and in this case to say that $A$ satisfies $R$ means that $R$ is true."

However, I do appreciate the textbook that is self-contained and appreciate the author devoted to mathematical reasoning so rigorously at the beginning of the chapter. I tried to find some textbook about mathematical logic but they are either too abstract or not thorough enough that seems to start from the most fundamental (i.e. from axiom and the most basic rule).

I have read relevant posts on the subject I am asking but can't decide the material right for me. I am wondering if there are any materials or textbooks that introduce mathematical logic rigorously and serve as a supplementary text for me to understand the first chapter of the book? If there really isn't any textbook that is not too abstract but rigorous enough, I am wondering if there are any other textbooks on abstract algebra that start from mathematical logic and build the whole system from the scratch?

Alec Blake

Beginner2022-07-09Added 11 answers

I liked “A Transition to Advanced Mathematics” by Douglas Smith. It covers a lot of transitional knowledge like predicate calculus, sets, relations, functions, cardinality, and abstract algebra. I found it to be very easy to understand in transition from calculus to upper level maths.

Given that 1${\mathrm{log}}_{a}\left(3\right)\approx 0.61$ and l${\mathrm{log}}_{a}\left(5\right)\approx 0.9$ , evaluate each of the following. Hint: use the properties of logarithms to rewrite the given logarithm in terms of the the logarithms of 3 and 5.

$C=\frac{5}{9}(F-32)$

The equation above shows how temperature

*F*, measured in degrees Fahrenheit, relates to a temperature*C*, measured in degrees Celsius. Based on the equation, which of the following must be true?1. A temperature increase of 1 degree Fahrenheit is equivalent to a temperature increase of $\frac{5}{9}$ degree Celsius.

2. A temperature increase of 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to a temperature increase of 1.8 degrees Fahrenheit.

3. A temperature increase of $\frac{5}{9}$ degree Fahrenheit is equivalent to a temperature increase of 1 degree Celsius.

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) I and II onlyOne of the two tables below shows data that can best be modeled by a linear function, and the other shows data that can best be modeled by a quadratic function. Identify which table shows the linear data and which table shows the quadratic data, and find a formula for each model.

One of the two tables below shows data that can best be modeled by a linear function, and the other shows data that can best be modeled by a quadratic function. Identify which table shows the linear data and which table shows the quadratic data, and find a formula for each model.

if -x^2+y^2=4-4x^2y then find the equations of all tangent lines to the curve when y=-5

Find the formula for an exponential function that passes through (0,6) and (2,750)

Use the given conditions to write an equation for the line in point-slope form and general form. Passing through (8,-4) and perpendicular to the line whose equation is

x-6y-5=0

Use the given conditions to write an equation for the line in point-slope form and general form. Passing through (8,-4) and perpendicular to the line whose equation is x-6y-5=0

A polynomial of a degree 5 had rational coefficients and the zeros $\frac{4}{3},8i$, and $3-5\sqrt{2}$

What are the missing zeros?

Let R be the relation on the set {0, 1, 2, 3} containing the ordered pairs (0, 1),(1, 1),(1, 2),(2, 0),(2, 2),(3, 0). Find reflexive, symmetric and transitive closure of R.

A baseball team plays in a stadium that holds 70,000 spectators. With the ticket price at $11, the average attendance has been 29,000. When the price dropped to $10, the average attendance rose to 35,000. Assuming the demand function, p(x)$p\left(x\right)$, is linear, find p(x)$p\left(x\right)$, where x$x$ is the number of the spectators.

*Write p(x)*$p\left(x\right)$*in slope-intercept form.*To break even in a manufacturing business, income or revenue R must equal the cost of production the letter C. The cost the letter C to produce X skateboards is the letter C = 108+21X. The skateboards are sold wholesale for $25 each, so revenue the letter R is given by the letter R = 25 X. Find how many skateboards the manufacture needs to produce and sell to break even. (Hint: set the cost expression equal to the revenue expression and solve for X.)