broggesy9

2022-05-02

Why is a nuclear fusion reactor not currently possible?

Nuclear fission reactors are fairly common, but what technological/physical limitations are currently impeding developing the nuclear fusion reactor? The H-bomb is capable of creating nuclear fusion on earth, so the process of creating nuclear fusion is already understood to some extent, although you are detonating a fission bomb to start the fusion process.

Having a cycle between a fusion and a fission reactor would solve some serious energy problems.

Nuclear fission reactors are fairly common, but what technological/physical limitations are currently impeding developing the nuclear fusion reactor? The H-bomb is capable of creating nuclear fusion on earth, so the process of creating nuclear fusion is already understood to some extent, although you are detonating a fission bomb to start the fusion process.

Having a cycle between a fusion and a fission reactor would solve some serious energy problems.

Adrien Ho

Beginner2022-05-03Added 16 answers

Have you ever played with magnets, especially tried to put two north poles together with your hands, and noticed how difficult this is? Well, although it is difficult, you can manage it. But this is only possible because the magnetic dipole force is weaker (proportional to $1/{r}^{3}$) than the coulomb force (proportional to $1/{r}^{2}$) that keeps your hands from falling apart.

When it comes to fusion, the situation is similar in that you would need to push positive nuclei intensely together in order to make them eventually fuse due to their shorter ranged strong interaction. But, sadly, there is simply nothing stronger at technological scales than the repulsive Coulomb force between the positive nuclei, because every machine we can build is made of atoms, which are also subject to the Coulomb force. Hence, no simple machine can push nuclei together to achieve fusion, unlike you are able to push magnets together with your hands.

The only way to achieve nuclear fusion is to increase the speed of the components in order to surmount the Coulomb barrier by their kinetic energy. But if kinetic energy is high, the probability that the nuclei just fly apart increases also, unless you are able to confine them in a limited volume. And this is the actual difficulty: you can't just put a plasma of several million Kelvin into a Cola bottle.

In the case of the fusion/fission bomb, the containment is simply achieved by the fission bomb creating an enormous pressure that acts on the fusion components. It is clear that this is a one-time event, and, as such, it is not a sustainable process like it is desired for a power plant. And you can't just slow down the fusion process, because this would again decrease the pressure, which wouldn't be sufficient then so as to confine the fusion components.

When it comes to fusion, the situation is similar in that you would need to push positive nuclei intensely together in order to make them eventually fuse due to their shorter ranged strong interaction. But, sadly, there is simply nothing stronger at technological scales than the repulsive Coulomb force between the positive nuclei, because every machine we can build is made of atoms, which are also subject to the Coulomb force. Hence, no simple machine can push nuclei together to achieve fusion, unlike you are able to push magnets together with your hands.

The only way to achieve nuclear fusion is to increase the speed of the components in order to surmount the Coulomb barrier by their kinetic energy. But if kinetic energy is high, the probability that the nuclei just fly apart increases also, unless you are able to confine them in a limited volume. And this is the actual difficulty: you can't just put a plasma of several million Kelvin into a Cola bottle.

In the case of the fusion/fission bomb, the containment is simply achieved by the fission bomb creating an enormous pressure that acts on the fusion components. It is clear that this is a one-time event, and, as such, it is not a sustainable process like it is desired for a power plant. And you can't just slow down the fusion process, because this would again decrease the pressure, which wouldn't be sufficient then so as to confine the fusion components.

Spencer Murillo

Beginner2022-05-04Added 9 answers

A rephrasing of this question is:

A) We can make nuclear fission reactors, and B) nuclear fusion bombs are driven by nuclear fission bombs. So, C) why can't we use nuclear fission reactors to power nuclear fusion reactions? (If I have this rephrasing wrong, please let me know.)

Answer:

In short, fission bombs and fission reactors are very different. In particular, the temperature of a fission reactor is about $300\phantom{\rule{thinmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{C}$, whereas the temperature of a fission bomb is about ${10}^{6}-{10}^{7}\phantom{\rule{thinmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{C}$. There's not really a way to scale between these.

More generally, the pressures and temperatures required to sustain fusion are difficult to achieve and contain, and at this time, humanity has simply found no way to do it.

A) We can make nuclear fission reactors, and B) nuclear fusion bombs are driven by nuclear fission bombs. So, C) why can't we use nuclear fission reactors to power nuclear fusion reactions? (If I have this rephrasing wrong, please let me know.)

Answer:

In short, fission bombs and fission reactors are very different. In particular, the temperature of a fission reactor is about $300\phantom{\rule{thinmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{C}$, whereas the temperature of a fission bomb is about ${10}^{6}-{10}^{7}\phantom{\rule{thinmathspace}{0ex}}\mathrm{C}$. There's not really a way to scale between these.

More generally, the pressures and temperatures required to sustain fusion are difficult to achieve and contain, and at this time, humanity has simply found no way to do it.

A pulley system can lift a load of 1200 N by an effort of 250 N. If the resistance due to the weight of movable parts and friction is 300 N.Find the total number of pulleys in the system.

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

D) 8"Estimate the average mass density of asodium atom assuming its size to be about 2.5.(Use the known values of Avogadro's number and sodium's atomic mass.). Compare it with the density of sodium in its crystallinephase: 970 kg ${m}^{-3}$. Are the two densities of the sameorder of magnitude? If so, why?"

Atomic number refers to the number of present in an atom.

neutrons

electrons

protonsThe half-life for radioactive decay of 14C is 5730 years. An archaeological artifact containing wood had only 80% of the 14C found in a living tree. Calculate the sample's age.

The half-life for the radioactive decay of C-14 is 5730 years.How long will it take for 30% of the C-14 atoms in a sample of C-14 to decay?

What is the mass number of an atom which contains 28 protons, 28 electrons, and 34 neutrons?

A) 28

B) 56

C) 62

D) 90The first allowed excited state of a hydrogen atom is 10.2 eV above its lowest energy (ground) state. To what temperature should hydrogen gas be raised so that inelastic collisions may excite an appreciable number of atoms to their first excited state.

A. $17.88\times {10}^{4}K$

B. $7.88\times {10}^{4}K$

C. $157.88\times {10}^{4}K$

D. $237.88\times {10}^{4}K$How does the sun burn in space as the sun is a ball of fire?

Potassium exits in mainly two isotopic form,39k and 41k and their abundance in nature are 93% and 7%. What is the average atomic mass of potassium.

The positively charged atom is known as a _______

Gram Atomic mass is just the atomic mass expressed in grams ...ie, atomic mass with gram as units. One more information about it gram atomic mass and gram atom are the same thing. Later a formula is given that: Gram atom = mass in grams / Atomic mass [RAM]. There are questions also that use this formula in which we have to find the number of "gram atoms " in a given mass of substance. So what is the real meaning of gram atom and the formula?

What are the advantages of nuclear energy?

A Atom has a nucleus which is surrounded by electrons and protons. A cell in a leaf also has a nucleus, so the nucleus in the leaf also has electrons and protons surrounding it?

$g(x)={\int}_{0}^{{2}^{x}}\mathrm{sin}({t}^{2})\phantom{\rule{thinmathspace}{0ex}}dt$, g'(0)=

The quark epoch is when ________ was/were created.

Select one:

A. everything in normal atoms

B. protons and neutrons that still survive

C. all known matter

D. the rapid inflation of the cosmos

E. only dark energy

What key event took place during the atomic epoch?

Select one:

A. Atoms in the universe collected to form stars and galaxies.

B. The universe expanded and cooled enough to allow the first particles to appear.

C. The neutrinos were created.

D. The universe underwent a brief period of rapid expansion.

E. The universe expanded and cooled enough for electrons to orbit protons.