Kayla Mcdowell

2022-10-17

Why binding energy per nucleon is constant(pratically) for atomic number, A, larger than 30 and less than 170, and explain the saturation property of nuclear forces with analogy that is easy to understand?

ehedem26

Beginner2022-10-18Added 13 answers

You have to realized that the combined forces that bind the protons and neutrons together are a complex interplay between two forces:

a)The electromagnetic one, where the charge of a proton repels the charge of another proton and no binding could occur

b) the strong force , the force that binds the quarks into the protons and neutrons, and spills over around each proton and neutron and is an attractive one.

From this you can understand that the number of particles that can be "bound" depends on the interplay of the repulsive and attractive forces and is a many body problem not solvable analytically, but with various nuclear models. These models are fairly successful in describing the behavior of the nuclei and the way the energy is distributed ( binding energy).

A third process that enters the problem is that neutrons are not stable, if they are not bound within a collective nuclear potential they decay ( beta decays of isotopes).

Qualitatively you can think that after a certain mass number (A) , the assumption of average density will be fairly good Too many protons would spoil the broth by repulsion, so the mass number is limited at the high end, too many neutrons would have outer energy level neutrons decay and this is also a limit. On the lower end of mass number, the number of nucleons in the nucleus is too small and the statistical arguments of density can no longer be a good approximation.

a)The electromagnetic one, where the charge of a proton repels the charge of another proton and no binding could occur

b) the strong force , the force that binds the quarks into the protons and neutrons, and spills over around each proton and neutron and is an attractive one.

From this you can understand that the number of particles that can be "bound" depends on the interplay of the repulsive and attractive forces and is a many body problem not solvable analytically, but with various nuclear models. These models are fairly successful in describing the behavior of the nuclei and the way the energy is distributed ( binding energy).

A third process that enters the problem is that neutrons are not stable, if they are not bound within a collective nuclear potential they decay ( beta decays of isotopes).

Qualitatively you can think that after a certain mass number (A) , the assumption of average density will be fairly good Too many protons would spoil the broth by repulsion, so the mass number is limited at the high end, too many neutrons would have outer energy level neutrons decay and this is also a limit. On the lower end of mass number, the number of nucleons in the nucleus is too small and the statistical arguments of density can no longer be a good approximation.

A pulley system can lift a load of 1200 N by an effort of 250 N. If the resistance due to the weight of movable parts and friction is 300 N.Find the total number of pulleys in the system.

A) 2

B) 4

C) 6

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neutrons

electrons

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The half-life for the radioactive decay of C-14 is 5730 years.How long will it take for 30% of the C-14 atoms in a sample of C-14 to decay?

What is the mass number of an atom which contains 28 protons, 28 electrons, and 34 neutrons?

A) 28

B) 56

C) 62

D) 90The first allowed excited state of a hydrogen atom is 10.2 eV above its lowest energy (ground) state. To what temperature should hydrogen gas be raised so that inelastic collisions may excite an appreciable number of atoms to their first excited state.

A. $17.88\times {10}^{4}K$

B. $7.88\times {10}^{4}K$

C. $157.88\times {10}^{4}K$

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The positively charged atom is known as a _______

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Select one:

A. everything in normal atoms

B. protons and neutrons that still survive

C. all known matter

D. the rapid inflation of the cosmos

E. only dark energy

What key event took place during the atomic epoch?

Select one:

A. Atoms in the universe collected to form stars and galaxies.

B. The universe expanded and cooled enough to allow the first particles to appear.

C. The neutrinos were created.

D. The universe underwent a brief period of rapid expansion.

E. The universe expanded and cooled enough for electrons to orbit protons.